Wednesday, March 16, 2016
reported by Breitbart London, Albania has asked for Italian military support to deal with the continuing flow of illegal aliens from North Africa and the Middle East into southern Europe. The Italian Interior Minister is set to sign an agreement next week to send Italian troops to Albania to help that country secure their border and, Rome hopes, to prevent the infiltration of Islamic terrorists into Europe. Obviously, one cannot help but take notice of this considering the history involved with Italian military personnel being deployed, once again, to Albania. It shows how reality often conflicts with idealistic talk. In the past, there was much bluster and denunciations about the notion that Albania was a "protectorate" of the Kingdom of Italy (and that long before the Italian occupation of Albania during the Fascist Era). However, if Albania is unable to enforce its own borders and requires, as is now the case, Italian forces to come in to "protect" Albania from these waves of illegal immigrants passing through the country, then surely Albania is declaring itself to be, de facto, an Italian "protectorate"? One cannot, after all, be "independent" and at the same time "depend" on another country for protection or secure borders. And, if Italy is going to extend this protection to Albania, to take responsibility for the security of Albanian borders, surely it is not unreasonable to expect that Italy should be given something in compensation? People of any era can denounce the idea of "imperialism" all they please but the fact is that it continues to occur and reoccur throughout history because reality intrudes on idealism and the facts of the situation result in the same sort of system coming back into being time and time again. We should simply be honest and not in denial about the facts of reality.
Monday, March 14, 2016
Wednesday, March 2, 2016
Anti-Pope Felix V renounced his secular titles and was crowned by Cardinal d’Allamand in 1440. For the first few years of his pontificate his secretary was Aeneas Sylvinus Piccolomini, later Pope Pius II. The actual pope, Eugene IV, excommunicated him of course and he found no widespread popular support for his position beyond his own lands in Savoy and across Switzerland. Those who did acknowledge him as the rightful pope included the Dukes of Austria, Tyrol, Bavaria-Munich, the Count-Palatine of Simmern, the Teutonic Order and a handful of religious orders and universities in Germany. Most of those who appointed cardinals refused to take their places and as Pope Eugene IV gave way to Pope Nicholas V support for Felix V fell away further. He was also frequently at odds with the Council of Basel over financial matters which is the one area that tends to taint his reputation. Still, no one could find that he had acted in bad faith or could show any evidence of serious defects in his character. His position continued to deteriorate though through 1442 and 1443 after which he increasingly became isolated and ignored. Efforts to establish a papal court and control over the Church bureaucracy ended in frustration and finally the pretense came to an end in 1449 when he submitted to the authority of Pope Nicholas V on April 7.