Greater coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Italy in 1870
(note the Savoy star at the top and the Savoy Crown on the helmet)

Lesser coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Italy

Lesser coat-of-arms of the House of Savoy
Greater coat-of-arms of the King of Italy

Coat-of-arms of the Dukes of Aosta

Symbol of the Regia Marina (Royal Navy)
Old version of the Savoy star
Armed forces star of the Kingdom of Italy

Savoy eagle, a symbol since the Middle Ages

Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Spain (House of Savoy)

Coat-of-arms of Italian East Africa

Crown of Savoy

Savoy Knot
The Savoy Knot, topped with the Crown, was the badge of the House of Savoy. The motto of the badge was "Stringe ma non costringe" ('It tightens but does not constrain')

Crown of Italy (Iron Crown of Lombardy)

Crown of the Hereditary Prince of Italy (heir to the throne)

Greater Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Italy in 1890
(note the addition of the Iron Crown on the helmet)

Greater coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Italy from 1929 to 1944
(note the addition of fasces as supports)
Lesser coat-of-arms of Italy from 1929 to 1944

The Savoy arms contain several important symbols. At the very top is the Savoy Crown which had been the royal crown of Piedmont-Sardinia. This crown was destroyed when French Revolutionary forces occupied Piedmont but it always remained the primary symbolic crown. The other crown (which was placed on the helmet -as seen above- by King Umberto I) was the Iron Crown of Lombardy, aka the Crown of Italy, which contains a nail used in the crucifixion of Christ and has been a symbol of Italian kingship since the Dark Ages. The basic Savoy arms of the white cross on a red shield may refer to the Savoy crusaders in general but most likely originate in Count Amedeo V (Amadeus the Great) who defended Rhodes from the Turks with the Knights of St John whose symbol was a white cross on a red field. It is also one of the common explanations for the Savoy motto FERT as standing for "Fortitudo Eius Rhodum Tenuit" or 'His Strength Preserved Rhodes'. The distinctive Savoy knot has long been associated with the family and is seen throughout arms, uniforms and a variety of insignia associated with the Savoy monarchy. At the very bottom of the arms there are sometimes displayed all of the chivalric orders of the house but the one usually displayed and the most prominent was the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation, one of the most ancient chivalric orders in Christendom. Our Lady of the Annunciation has long been the patron saint of Sardinia. The fasces (ancient Roman symbol of authority) were never associated with the House of Savoy but are displayed prominent on all coats of arms etc from the Fascist era (1922-1943) when Mussolini was in power. Once he was removed and arrested the symbol was promptly removed.