Monday, September 30, 2013

Defeat is Victory for Carlo Emanuele III

It was on this day in 1744 that the battle of Madonna dell'Olmo was fought between the forces of King Carlo Emanuele III and the combined armies of France and Spain. Although he was outnumbered, suffered more losses and was forced to concede the battlefield, it was King Carlo Emanuele III who was really victorious in the end. He lost the battle but it proved to be unimportant because, thanks to his strategic thinking and foresight, it was his goals that were accomplished rather than those of his enemies. The clever Savoy king had set up a situation that brilliantly ensured that he would be successful no matter who won the battle of Madonna dell'Olmo. The real key was Cuneo, which the Franco-Spanish forces had besieged as the last obstacle before penetrating deep into Piemontese territory. King Carlo Emanuele III called out the national militia to harass their supply lines and sent out his army to fight the enemy away from the city, distracting them and delaying them. The situation was arranged with such skill that the outcome of the battle did not matter at all. Simply be delaying the French and Spanish with a fight elsewhere, the King was able to evacuate the sick and wounded from Cuneo, send them relief supplies and by the time the enemy returned to focus on the siege, winter weather would have forced them to call off the operation and retreat anyway. There are few other examples in which a battle could be lost and yet the overall situation be arranged so brilliantly to the effect that the loser ended up being the real winner. The French and Spanish had to re-cross the Alps to avoid being snowed in and Piedmont was safe. Even with a lost battle, thanks to his skillful strategy, King Carlo Emanuele III had saved his country from invasion.

Monday, September 23, 2013

Salò Republic - Hardcore Disaster

It was on this day in 1943 that the Italian Social Republic was founded, after a group of SS paratroopers broke Mussolini out from his house arrest and took him away to Germany and then German-occupied northern Italy. To this day, a great many Fascists have a very nostalgic view of the RSI as the "pure" fascist state without all of those pesky "concessions" to the monarchy and the Catholic Church that existed in the past (and which Fascists once boasted proudly of as respect for tradition). However, the RSI was not so much a "pure" Fascist state as it was a throwback to the socialist roots of Benito Mussolini; anti-royal, anti-clerical and egalitarian with state ownership of all businesses with more than a hundred employees. He also agreed to vast territorial losses, mostly to Germany, giving away what Italians had struggled for over many generations. This is something many people do not understand when they marvel at how successful Fascism seemed to be when Mussolini first came to power in the Kingdom of Italy. This was due entirely to the great shift Mussolini made toward the right in order to gain support among the conservatives and because the economic facts of life simply allowed for no other option. Mussolini, born and raised a socialist, started out on the left, was cast out by them, started his own mostly leftist movement, then lurched to the right and when the RSI was founded, reverted back toward the left again.

When the Fascists first came to power, and the time when so many around the world viewed Mussolini as a miracle worker and master statesman, they actually enacted policies that were the opposite of what Il Duce himself had championed for so long. Taxes were lowered, regulations on business were actually cut, non-Fascist unions were broken up and the Fascist unions were to keep in cooperation with the industrialists to maximize production and create as many jobs as possible. Mussolini talked about and bragged about his ideal of totalitarianism but, when thrust into power, he found that things worked best when businessmen ran their own businesses and when taxes were cut and regulations were slashed the economy boomed and Mussolini and the Fascist Party got the credit. However, taking this to heart, Mussolini later moved back in the direction he always favored, raised taxes, enacted more regulations and created more social programs which worked together to bring the economic progress of the early years to a halt. It was basically a case of trial and error and any observer could plainly see the policies which brought about the most success under the Fascist regime and which ones did not. After smashing the socialists and holding dictatorial power, Mussolini could afford to do what worked even if it pleased ownership more than labor.

All of this changed with the creation of the RSI. This new regime swung hard back to the left with a program of socialization that Mussolini insisted on. Not surprisingly, the result was a disaster with most industries refusing to cooperate or simply being shut down completely. The effort to win over the life-long socialists and communists within the labor movement was a completely wasted effort by Mussolini and all he succeeded in doing was alienated the people who had supported him in the past as their shield against socialist chaos and internationalist communist subversion. The RSI was not "pure" Fascism but could best be described as angry Fascism, a Fascism that was wounded, clearly doomed but which was still clawing away at friend and foe alike in an effort to survive. It was the the death rattle of the career of Mussolini. It was also, and this fact is lost on many, the first republican government to claim jurisdiction over the whole of the Italian peninsula since the unification of Italy. Those who choose to blame the Italian monarchy for Mussolini and Fascism fail to remember that the first totally Fascist state in Italy was a republic that condemned the lawful King of Italy as a "traitor" for removing Mussolini from power. For all of their supposed anti-Fascism, it seems the post-war Italian republicans and the Fascists of the RSI actually had quite a bit in common.

Sunday, September 15, 2013

Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin

Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin was born in Turin on November 24, 1870 to Prince Amadeo of Savoy, Duke of Aosta and Maria Victoria al Pozzo della Cisterna. King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy was his grandfather. Shortly before his birth the Duke of Aosta had been elected King Amadeo I of Spain and shortly after his arrival the family departed for Madrid where the little prince was given the title of Infante of Spain. That, as we know, did not last long and the vision of his grandfather the King of Italy to place royals of the House of Savoy on as many Mediterranean thrones as possible came to nothing when the (rather reluctant) King Amadeo I declared Spain to be ungovernable and abdicated, after which the First Spanish Republic was established (Boo! Hiss!). Being only a baby at the time, it is doubtful these major world events made much of an impression on the little former Infante of Spain. Back home in Italy with his family, he had a relatively normal childhood for a prince of the House of Savoy. As was usual, he was given an education that took for granted a military career and which emphasized dynastic duty and the long history and past glories of the House of Savoy.

The Count of Savoy took all of that very much to heart and grew into a dashing young man who determined to become a cavalry officer. Toward that end, he studied at the Military Academy of Modena, graduating in 1889 with the rank of second lieutenant. He was first assigned to the Nice Cavalry regiment of the Royal Italian Army and then served as a lieutenant in the “Piemonte Reale Cavalleria”. The Italians, as most know, have a reputation for being a proud and somewhat emotional people and the Count of Turin certainly seems to have inherited those traits, combined with his education about his family history and the role of the Savoy as the guardians of Italian honor. All of this set the stage for the incident in his life he was to become most famous for. It all came about in France where Prince Henri of Orleans, son of the Duke of Chartres had written a number of articles in “Le Figaro” concerning the recent Italo-Abyssinian War and the devastating Italian loss at the battle of Adowa. A little background is in order.

During this battle, unfamiliarity with the terrain and misinformation provided by guides in the pay of the enemy, led a small Italian colonial column of 18,000 troops (mostly African natives with Italian officers) to become separated and then attacked piecemeal and overwhelmed by a massive Ethiopian army of well over 100,000. In the aftermath, many of the survivors on the Italian side were massacred and/or tortured and mutilated. Those who were taken prisoner were not released at the close of hostilities but held for ransom (which was paid secretly by King Umberto I of Italy to the Ethiopian Emperor). It horrified public opinion in Italy and brought down the government of the long-time political powerhouse Francesco Crispi (a proud and ambitious veteran of “The Thousand”). Now, enter Prince Henri of Orleans. Throughout his life Prince Henri had proven himself to be a bold and intrepid traveler as well as a condescending man. He was most known for being an inveterate Anglophobe, writing and uttering many a diatribe insulting and condemning Great Britain in the harshest terms. Yet, oddly enough, the British seemed to celebrate him in spite of that. He would learn that Italians responded quite differently to being insulted.

In his articles about the Italo-Abyssinian War and its aftermath, particularly regarding the Italians who had been taken prisoner, Prince Henri essentially dismissed them all as being so many cowards. In doing so he also, probably inadvertently, insulted the Ethiopians as well by taking the attitude that only inept cowards could have possibly lost a battle to Africans, no matter how vastly outnumbered they were. The Count of Turin happened to read these rather explosive articles and was thoroughly outraged. The honor of Italian soldiers had been thoroughly insulted by this French prince and if no one else was prepared to do anything about it; he would. The British might have tolerated this sort of thing, but the Count of Turin would not and accepted the role of champion on the part of Italian soldiers everywhere. He demanded satisfaction and demanded Prince Henri retract his insults and apologize. The proud Frenchman of course refused and the Count of Turin immediately challenged him to a good, old fashioned duel.

The time and place were decided; August 15, 1897 in Vaucresson at Versailles. The weapon chosen was the sword since, even though the French preferred to duel with pistols, the Italians felt this unworthy of princes deciding a matter of honor. In Italy, pistols were used by cuckolded husbands while nobles and the high born settled differences with the saber. So, at five o’clock in the morning, it began with the duel being supervised by Count Leontieff and Count Avogadro in the Bois de Marchechaux. The two had at each other and after five reprises the Count of Turin was victorious, inflicting a wound on Prince Henri’s abdomen that the doctors of both parties deemed serious enough to put the Prince at a disadvantage and so the match was awarded to the Count of Turin. All of Europe was rather enthralled by this showdown that seemed like a throwback to centuries past. In Italy, however, the Count of Turin became a national hero instantly and was celebrated across the country for his victory and for standing up for Italian honor. When he returned to his homeland he was met in Turin by King Umberto I who said, “I want to be the first to congratulate you with all my heart on the example you set and the success you scored.”

Prince Vittorio Emanuele would be a celebrity for the rest of his life thanks to that famous duel but, of course, it was not the sort of thing he made a habit of. The famous Italian poet and scholar Giovanni Pascoli even penned a little poem about the contest. The following year the Count of Turin went on a world tour, visiting New York in the United States, presenting the silver cup to the winner of the Count of Turin golf tournament at the Newport Country Club and went on to visit the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire of China. He also continued in his military career, eventually rising to the position of commander-in-chief of all Italian cavalry. He commanded the Italian cavalry in World War I, which was rather the ‘last hurrah’ for that particular branch of service and, ironically enough, when it was over was awarded the Croix de guerre by the French Republic. Later, he retired from active duty and left Italy after the monarchy was abolished following World War II. He died in Brussels, four months after the proclamation of the Italian Republic, on November 24, 1946 at the age of 76. He had accomplished a lot in his life but he will always be most remembered as the Savoy royal who fought a duel in 1897 for the honor of the Italian army.

Friday, September 13, 2013

The Longest Serving Armor

Possibly the longest serving tank in the armory of the Kingdom of Italy was the small, rugged Fiat 3000 light tank. It was the first tank model to be made in Italy and was the standard armored fighting vehicle for Italian forces after World War I up until almost the start of World War II. Based on the popular French Renault FT of the First World War, it was always more of a World War I tank than a World War II tank being, essentially, an armored machine gun unit. It began service in the Royal Italian Army in 1921 and served throughout the remaining years of the Kingdom of Italy. The original Fiat 3000 M21 was armed with two 6.5mm machine guns but the later Fiat 3000b of 1930 (or M30) was given a 37mm gun, along with a more powerful engine. It had a top speed of 21 kmh (13mph) and was protected by 6-16mm of armor plating and carried a crew of two; one driver and one gunner. When it was designed and built, it must be kept in mind, there was no intention of such a machine ever engaging another tank but, as had been the case with tanks in World War I, was designed to be an anti-infantry vehicle.

The Fiat 3000 saw extensive service in a variety of terrain. During the war for the pacification of Libya, these tanks were brought in to give Italian forces a clear advantage and they performed quite well. This was actually the first time anyone had used tanks in the deserts of north Africa, though it certainly would not be the last. The Fiat 3000 was also used in the conquest of Ethiopia and they were not the first in the country. Back before Ethiopia took a hostile attitude to the Kingdom of Italy, the Duke of Abruzzi had given a Fiat 3000 to the Ethiopian Empress as a gift. In 1928 supporters of the Empress tried to restore her to power and Emperor Haile Selassie, who had seized control of the country from the Empress, used the Italian tank she had been given against her forces. None were used by the Italian forces in the Spanish Civil War but there may have been one that found its way into the army of the Spanish republican forces Italy and the Spanish nationalists were fighting against. By the time World War II broke out, the Fiat 3000 was very much outdated and no longer fit for front-line service.

In spite of this fact, the material shortages Italy suffered throughout the war meant that some Fiat 3000’s had to be pressed into service again when Italy entered the war. A small number saw service in the rugged terrain of southern Albania and northern Greece, however they would have proven less than useless up against even the earliest models of British tanks that Italy was facing in north Africa at the time. They last saw service in 1943 during the Allied invasion of Sicily when Italy was so hard-pressed that many antiquated weapons, or any weapons of any sort, were thrown into the line in the desperate fight to stop the invaders. In some ways, the defense of Sicily must have seemed reminiscent of the First World War with the Allies coming ashore to be greeted by Italian troops wearing outdated uniforms including Adrian-style steel helmets such as were worn in World War I and equipped with World War I vintage artillery in some cases as well as a few Fiat 3000 light tanks. It was a hopeless fight and by that time they were hopelessly outdated and outclassed, as everyone knew, but still, some respect should be given to the little Fiat 3000 tanks for putting in so many years of service to Italy.

Thursday, September 5, 2013

St Pio and the Queen

Throughout most of her life, Queen Marie Jose of Italy could probably best be described as a dutiful Catholic rather than a devout one. She was sincere, she was faithful and she was raised with a great respect for the Catholic Church. It certainly helped shape her morality and her sense of compassion for the less fortunate. However, by her own admission, she was never zealous about her Christianity, not of a disposition to believe mystical or miraculous  things. She was the very open, tolerant, non-judgmental type of person and not the kind who dwelled excessively on sin, dogmas, angels or demons. Queen Marie Jose tended to view religion in an earth-bound way; be good and do good and you should be okay. Yet, she had a very significant spiritual encounter with a saint, famous in his own time, who embodied almost everything about Catholicism that the Queen did not. That man was Padre Pio, known today as St Pio of Pietrelcina. This was a man who was famously short-tempered, not one to suffer fools gladly, a man who could see into the souls of others, who bore the stigmata, the very wounds of Christ, and who had many miracles attributed to him even in his own lifetime. It was also not unknown for him to make the occasional prophecy.

Many, many people all over the world are familiar with St Pio of Pietrelcina. Even a great many who are not Catholics have at least heard of the man named Padre Pio. In all the discussions of his saintliness, however, his words of wisdom, his patience and obedience, even when treated harshly by disbelieving superiors in the Church, what is seldom mentioned is the fact that St Pio was a staunch Italian royalist and that he made some predictions concerning the Italian monarchy and the House of Savoy, each to Queen Marie Jose. The first occasion came when Princess Marie Jose of Piedmont visited Padre Pio in 1938, just out of curiosity. She had most likely heard of the future saint through her mother-in-law Queen Elena (a devoutly Catholic lady whose cause for canonization is also being considered). When Princess Marie Jose arrived, she was struck by the aroma of violets in the air even though there were no flowers around. In typical fashion, when Padre Pio was told that the Princess of Piedmont had arrived, he said he would see her but only after he finished hearing those who had come to confession. With Padre Pio, the Lord’s work came first and other visitors, princess or no princess, would have to wait.

When they two finally met, the future saint and the future Queen of Italy had a very long talk. Among other things, Padre Pio reassured the princess about her father, King Albert I of the Belgians, who had died not long before. The Princess confessed the fears she had about Mussolini and his Fascist government but what was most significant was what Padre Pio told her about what was to come. He predicted that there would soon be a terrible war (and as we know, World War II broke out in Europe only a short time later) and that “everything will end soon”. Later, Queen Marie Jose realized that what St Pio had been referring to was the end of the Italian monarchy and the end of the reign of the House of Savoy after a thousand years in power. Looking back, it seemed an obvious reference and yet, in 1938, it was quite a prediction to make. The Italian monarchy was one of a relative few to have survived the First World War and, indeed, after that conflict, on paper at least, the King of Italy was arguably the most powerful monarch in Europe. By 1938 the Kingdom of Italy had pacified rebels in Libya, conquered an old enemy in Ethiopia and helped the nationalists win the Spanish Civil War. Everything seemed to be going great and no one, at that time, would have predicted such a gloomy future.

That story and that famous meeting has aroused relatively little controversy. Another, however, involving the last Queen of Italy and a prophecy of St Pio is a little bit more divisive. I must stress that some people will undoubtedly dispute this, but here is the story: Queen Marie Jose began a correspondence with St Pio during her time in exile in Switzerland. In their exchange of letters, St Pio wrote that “the monarchy will return to Italy” and that one of her relatives would be King. Nothing controversial there, though certainly hopeful and encouraging. The controversy came next, with St Pio saying that the next King would not be of the senior Savoy-Carignano line that the Queen’s own son was from but that this line of the Royal Family would be “dried up like dry leaves on a tree”. Rather, he predicted, it would be a different branch of the House of Savoy that would see the Italian monarchy restored. This story, immediately upon being made known, was taken to mean that the Savoy family line of the Duke of Aosta would be the one to preside over the restoration of the Kingdom of Italy. And there was just one more, perhaps miraculous, event that Savoy-Aosta royalists could point to.

During the celebrations for the canonization of St Pio, the friars of his monastery invited Prince Aimone of Savoy-Aosta, rather than any officials of the Italian republican government, to attend. Down in the crypt they reveal for all to see a bas-relief showing St Pio preaching with a crowd of people facing him. More than a few people noticed immediately that one of the figures looked exactly like Prince Aimone at the age of about fifteen, wearing the Collar of the Annunciation and carrying the cross symbol of the House of Savoy. What is seemingly miraculous about this is that, at the time the bas-relief was made, when St Pio died, Prince Aimone was barely a year old. Yet, the resemblance of the image to the Prince that stood there was uncanny. Observers could only speculate that St Pio had influenced the artists at their work. Was this perhaps a sign from the saint, pointing out the man who would restore the Italian kingdom? We can only hope, and work and pray. Perhaps a pray for the intercession of St Pio of Pietrelcina would not go amiss?

See also: The Perfume of Violets
              The Prophecy of Padre Pio

Sunday, September 1, 2013

Italian Underwater Ace Carlo Fecia di Cossato

The Italian submarines of the Regia Marina, though overshadowed by the U-Boats of Germany, had an excellent record of service in World War II, taking a heavy toll on Allied ships throughout the Atlantic and Mediterranean. Italy had some great boats and some great commanders and when the two came together, it made the Sommergibili something to be feared by the Allies. One of the top submarine "aces" of the Second World War was Captain Carlo Fecia di Cossato. A Roman, born in 1908, he graduated from the Naval Academy at Livorno in 1928 and was first posted to the Italian outpost in China. Later he began serving on submarines during the Italian intervention in the Spanish Civil War. In World War II his first command was the submarine Ciro Menotti. He went up against the Royal Navy in that boat but his real moment of glory came with his next command, the Calvi class submarine Enrico Tazzoli. This was definitely a winning combination for the Regia Marina as was soon proven when di Cossato took his boat into the rough waters of the Atlantic Ocean to hunt for ships. At 1,332 tons the Enrico Tazzoli was a big submarine built for long cruises to hunt in distant waters. The operational limit of the boat was 21,600 km. With a crew of 66 trained and motivated volunteers, two 4.7in deck guns and four AA guns with eight torpedo tubes, it was a formidable weapon and in the hands of a talented captain like Carlo Fecia di Cossato, it took a terrible toll on the Allied shipping lanes.

During his service in the Atlantic (mostly the south Atlantic) di Cossato sank 18 Allied merchant ships for a total of 96,553 tons with a further 5,000 tons of enemy shipping damaged but not sunk outright. For his exemplary service the captain was awarded two Silver Medals for Military Valor and one Gold Medal for Military Valor from the King of Italy and the Iron Cross first and second class and the Knight's Iron Cross from the Germans. The Enrico Tazzoli hunted a great deal in southern waters, in the shipping lanes near Brazil and sank ships that were Greek, British, Yugoslav, Norwegian, Dutch, Uruguayan and one American freighter which was its last victory. Captain Carlo Fecia di Cossato was promoted to command a squadron of torpedo boats and the Enrico Tazzoli was converted to be a submarine freighter rather than an attack submarine. It was sailing on a transport run to the Empire of Japan when it was sunk in the Bay of Biscay in 1943.

Unfortunately, her famous captain came to an unhappy end as well. The 1943 armistice troubled him deeply, as it did many men in uniform who had been fighting the Allies so hard only to suddenly find themselves on the opposite side. Captain di Cossato gave valiant service fighting against his former German allies off Bastia in 1943. However, the way the Kingdom of Italy was being treated by Britain and France as well as continued emotional trauma and confusion over the armistice and declaration of war on Germany left him unable to continue. The final terms of the armistice, which called for the total surrender of the Regia Marina was the last straw for the proud captain. He wrote, we "have committed an ignominious act without any result" and in 1944 he took his own life in Naples. It was a tragic end to a brilliant naval career for one of the most successful submarine commanders in history.